Human mind is built to remember. It never forgets or loses anything throughout life. We say “forget” when actually we have trouble remembering information due to memory blocks, misplacement, or the replacement of information. It is natural to remember only those things or concepts which we think are important. This is because we pay more attention to the ideas and information we want to remember or relate to our own priorities.
Lack of intent Faulty recall system Poor listener Lack of intention Too painful or embarrassing Unprepared Tired Fear Physical stress Distracted Bored Dislike the person Disagree with what is being said Lack of understanding Mental stress or strain
Mnemonics is a memory enhancing instructional strategy that involves teaching students to link new information that is taught to information they already know.” Mnemonics provide a systematic approach for organizing and remembering facts that have no apparent link or connection of their own.
It’s a technique that serves to facilitate storage, encoding, or recall of information in memory. It helps students/adults recall larger pieces of information, especially in the form of lists like characteristics, steps, stages, parts, phases, name, things, numbers, Periodic Table, Chemical Reactions, dates, etc. In 1967, from a study by Gerald R. Miller, it was witnessed that mnemonics increased recall. He found that students who regularly used mnemonic devices increased test scores up to 77%!
Many types of mnemonics exist and which type works best is limited only by the imagination of each individual learner. The 9 basic types of mnemonics include Music, Name, Expression/Word, Model, Ode/Rhyme, Note Organization, Image, Connection, and Spelling Mnemonics.
1. Music mnemonics
Songs and jingles can be used as a mnemonic. A common example is how children remember the alphabet by singing the ABC’s.
2. Name mnemonics
The first letter of each word is combined into a new word. For example: VIBGYOR (or ROY G BIV) for the colours of the rainbow or HOMES for the Great Lakes.
3. Expression or word mnemonics
The first letter of each word is combined to form a phrase or sentence — e.g. “Richard of York gave battle in vain” for the colours of the rainbow.
4. Model mnemonics
A model is used to help recall information.
5. Ode mnemonics
The information is placed into a poem or doggerel, — e.g. ‘Note socer, gener, liberi, and Liber god of revelry, like puer these retain the ‘e (most Latin nouns of the second declension ending in -er drop the -e in all of the oblique cases except the vocative, these are the exceptions).
6. Note organization mnemonics
The method of note organization can be used as a memorization technique.
7. Image mnemonics
The information is constructed into a picture — e.g. the German weak declension can be remembered as five ‘-e’s’, looking rather like the state of Oklahoma in America, in a sea of ‘-en’s’.
8. Connection mnemonics
New knowledge is connected to knowledge already known.
9. Spelling mnemonics
An example is “i before e except after c or when sounding like a in neighbor and weigh”.
• The storehouse of everything you know about the world and yourself. It is unlimited. Anything you have stored in long-term memory is available for later recall.
• This is transient working memory. Those things you are paying attention to right now must first pass through this narrow channel. There are two major limitations.
• First, only a small amount of information can be held there. Second, the information can be held for only a short amount of time. It fades if we shift our attention to something else. It can’t hold anything more than 30 seconds and can store only 5 to 9 items.
• This is a strategy for organizing information with the only purpose of making it more memorable.
• Imagery and mediation (method of loci, peg word system)
• Phonemic and Orthographic chars. (word and number recall)
• Phonemic cues and Imagery Mediation
• Acrostic Sentences